Astrid Kunze is Professor of Economics at the Norwegian School of Economics in Bergen, Norway. From 2000 to 2002, she was employed as a Research Associate at IZA. She holds a Ph.D. from University College London and an MSc from University of Bielefeld. She also did a traineeship in business economics with Bayer AG Leverkusen. She spent two longer-term research visits in 2006/2007 and 2013/2014 at IZA as a Visiting Research Fellow. Her main research interests are labour economics and applied micro-econometrics. She is particularly interested in the causal effects of public policies on labour market behavior. Kunze has conducted studies on the evaluation of parental leave policies, child care programmes and cash-for care policies, as well as gender quotas on boards. Another area of her research covers aspects of organizations and diversity in the firm. In her work empirical research, she uses large register data applying micro-econometric methods. She is a contributor to the Handbook on Women and the Economy, Oxford University Press, forthcoming May 2018. Her research has been published in journals such as the Review of Economics and Statistics, Labour Economics, Oxford Review of Economics Policy, Empirical Economics and Scandinavian Journal of Economics.



IZA Discussion Paper No. 10826
in the Handbook on Women and the Economy, Oxford University Press, (ed.) Susan L. Averett, Laura M. Argys, and Saul D. Hoffman, 2017.

Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 8725
in the Review of Economics and Statistics, 99(5): 769-775, 2017.

This paper studies gender spillovers in career advancement using 11 years of employer-employee matched data on the population of white-collar workers at over 4,000 private-sector establishments in Norway. Our data include unusually detailed job information for each worker, which enables us to define seven hierarchical ranks that are consistent across...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 8478
published in: Research in Labor Economics, 2015, Volume 41, 115-142.

This study investigates whether and when during the life cycle women fall behind in terms of career progression because of children. We use 1987-1997 Norwegian panel data that contain information on individuals' position in their career hierarchy as well as a direct measure of their promotions. We measure overall promotions...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 8113

This study reconsiders the empirical question of whether men's earnings increase because of children. Large Norwegian register data are used for brother and twin pairs who are followed over their life cycle from their first entry into the labour market. The data permit family-fixed effects to be modeled in various...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 6066
published in: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 2013, 115 (3), 856-877

This study investigates how the first childbirth affects the wage processes of highly attached women. We estimate a flexible fixed effects wage regression model extended with post-birth fixed effects by the control function approach. Register data on West Germany are used and we exploit the expansionary family policy during the...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 4656
published in: Labour Economics, 2012, 19 (2), 176-185

We investigate whether women search longer for a job than men and whether these differences change over the life cycle. Our empirical analysis exploits German register data on highly attached displaced workers. We apply duration models to analyze gender differences in job search taking into account observed and unobserved worker...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 3052
revised version published as 'Gender Differences in Job Search Among Young Workers: A Study using Displaced Workers in the United States', Southern Economic Journal, 2015, 82(1), 185-207.

In this paper we empirically examine differences in search behavior between men and women. We assess hypotheses regarding duration of search, wages and tenure. The hypotheses are derived from two models: the equilibrium search model with discriminatory firms by Black (1995) and an opportunity cost model that extends the Black...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 1766
published in: Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 2005, 21(3), 392-415

This paper investigates the relationship between the gender wage gap, the choice of training occupation, and occupational mobility. We use longitudinal data for young workers with apprenticeship training in West Germany. Workers make occupational career choices early during their careers and women and men pursue very different occupational careers. We...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 1011

We use a rich longitudinal data set for West Germany to disentangle the wage effects for female workers around first birth. Data on daily real wages reveal a dip in women's real wages shortly before giving birth and a drop of 10 to 20 percent after finishing maternity leave and...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 999
published in: Brussels Economic Review / Cahiers Economique de Bruxelles, 2004, 47 (1), 1-19

This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the demand for high-skilled workers using a new firm data set, the IZA International Employer Survey 2000. Our results suggest that while workers from EU-countries are mainly complements to domestic high-skilled workers, workers from non-EU countries are hired because of a shortage of...