T. Paul Schultz is Malcolm K. Brachman Professor of Economics at Yale University, having received his BA from Swarthmore College in 1961 and a PhD from MIT in 1966. He worked at the Rand Corporation from 1965 to 1972, where he founded and directed the Labor and Population Program, then was professor at University of Minnesota from 1972 to 1975, and at Yale University thereafter, serving as director of the Economic Growth Center at Yale from 1983 to 1996.

His research deals with microeconomic aspects of individual and family behavior, including labor supply and time allocation, marriage and fertility, investments in child quality, migration, and income distribution, with particular focus on the evolving gender differences in human capital and bargaining in low income countries. He is the author and editor of several books, a textbook, and a number of journal articles and chapters in books, including the chapter on education in the Handbook on Development Economics, a chapter on fertility in the Handbook on Family and Population Economics, and the chapter on Women's Role in the Agricultural Household in the forthcoming Handbook of Agricultural Economics. He is currently studying the productive benefits of improving health in the 20th century and the causes and consequences of the increase in women's wages relative to men's.

He joined IZA as a Research Fellow in November 1999.