November 2021

IZA DP No. 14897: Gender Discrimination

published online in: Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, Springer, Cham, 28 January 2022

This chapter provides a bird's eye view of the literature on gender discrimination. The presentation of studies is grouped into five parts. Part 1 presents evidence of gender discrimination measured via various dimensions in various countries and contexts. Part 2 discusses in detail the gender wage gap—one of the most important measures of gender discrimination—as well as gender segregation and its origins. Part 3 discusses the close relationship between female empowerment and violence, and the experience of women of color. Part 4 covers gender behavioral differences. Part 5 presents studies on the experience of women trying to break the glass ceiling, as well as the differential effects of education on boys and girls.