Paul Marx is Professor of Socio-Economics and Political Economy at University of Duisburg-Essen. In addition, he is affiliated to the Danish Centre for Welfare Studies (University of Southern Denmark) as a part-time professor.
He joined IZA in 2008 as a resident research affiliate and later as a research associate. Since 2011, he is affiliated with IZA as a research fellow.

His research interests are related to social and political inequality, political behaviour, and comparative welfare state and labour market analysis.



IZA Discussion Paper No. 9863
published in: Journal for Labour Market Research, 2017, 51 (3): 1-17.

Labor market segmentation refers to a salient divide between secure and insecure jobs and is related to problems in important areas, including macro-economic efficiency, workers' wellbeing and repercussions for social cohesion. European countries have started a new wave of labor market reforms in the aftermath of the 2008/09 crisis to...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 7979
revised version published in: Journal of European Social Policy, 26 (1), 20-31.

An unresolved question in political science is how economic downturns affect citizens' economic left-right preferences. Existing observational studies fail to isolate the effect of economic conditions and the effect of elite framing of these conditions. We therefore designed a survey experiment to evaluate how economic change in conjunction with different...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 7662
published in: Werner Eichhorst and Paul Marx (eds.), Non-Standard Employment in Post-Industrial Labour Markets, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2015

The share of non-standard jobs in total employment has increased in Germany over recent decades. Research tends to attribute this in particular to labour market re-forms and socio-economic change. However, it becomes clear upon closer inspection that macro trends alone cannot provide satisfactory explanations. A striking yet rarely acknowledged aspect...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 7569
revised version published in: West European Politics, 2014, 37 (5), 1177-1185

Insider-outsider theory suggests that in dual labour markets two groups have opposing preferences regarding protection against dismissals: insiders defend employment protection, because it increases their rents. Outsiders see it as a mobility barrier and demand deregulation. Similar divides are expected for unemployment benefits: as insiders and outsiders have diverging unemployment...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 6894

Although the negative economic effects of temporary employment are widely discussed, cross-country research on firms’ demand for temporary employment is rare. National studies indicate that workload fluctuations are one major motive for firms to employ temporary workers. By studying a novel data set of 18,500 firms from 20 countries, we...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 6137
also available in Portuguese

This study gives a comparative overview of labor market dynamics and institutional arrangements in Germany and Brazil with particular emphasis on industrial relations, wage setting, unemployment benefits, employment protection and vocational training. The paper shows that institutions determine the mode of adjustment to changing economic conditions and the role of...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 5521

The paper addresses an often neglected question in labour market research: to which extent do outcomes aggregated on the national level disguise occupational diversity in employment conditions? In particular, how and why do occupational groups differ with regard to the incidence of non-standard employment? To explore these questions, the paper...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 5320
Werner Eichhorst, Veronica Escudero, Paul Marx, Steven Tobin
also available as: International Institute for Labour Studies Discussion Paper 202. Geneva.

The paper takes a comparative perspective on the labour market impact on G20 and EU countries of the financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. It starts from the observation that the decline in employment and rise in unemployment in relation to output or GDP reductions varies significantly across...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 5285
published in: Jochen Clasen and Daniel Clegg (eds.), Regulating the Risk of Unemployment. National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe, Oxford: OUP, 2011, 281-296

This paper explores the empirical evidence for the claim that non-employed men and women in post-industrial labour markets are more likely to make the transition into employment than has previously been the case. It concludes that whilst the unemployed and the inactive remain distinct groups with regards to transitions into...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 5045
published in: Applied Economics Quarterly Supplement, 2010, 56 (61), 29-64

The current crisis, while of a global nature, has affected national labor markets to a varying extent. While some countries have experienced a steep increase in unemployment, employment in other developed economies has not fallen in parallel with a significant decline in GDP. Our analysis shows that labor market institutions...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 5043
revised version published as 'Business and the Development of Job Security Regulations: The Case of Germany' in: Socio-Economic Review, 2011, 9 (4), 729-756

This article examines the role of business in the historical development of job security regulations in Germany from their creation in the inter-war period to the dawn of the crisis of the 'German Model' in the 1980s. It contrasts the varieties of capitalism approach, which sees business as protagonists, or...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 5035
published in: P.Emmenegger et al. (eds.): The Age of Dualization, Oxford: 2012, 73-99

The paper compares employment structures in five Continental welfare states. These countries feature broad similarities in their reliance on a more dualised model of labour market flexibility, particularly in service occupations with low skill requirements. However, a closer look also reveals considerable differences between national patterns of standard and non-standard...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 4595

The observation of highly regulated, but successful economies has given rise to the hypothesis of various viable models of labor market adaptability. The paper presents a quantitative indicator that tries to avoid a simplified flexibility-rigidity dichotomy and provides a detailed picture of the varying institutional configurations by which flexibility is...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 4220

Different models of protection against labor market risks are associated with diverging models of economic performance. Historically established institutional complementarities between labor market regulation, unemployment protection, and vocational training tend to mirror specific national models of economic production. For example, the German dual apprenticeship system is a core feature of...

IZA Discussion Paper No. 4100
revised version published in: Journal of European Social Policy, 2011, 21(1), 73-87

Germany has always been one of the prime examples of institutional complementarities between social insurance, a rather passive welfare state, strong employment protection and collective bargaining that stabilize diversified quality production. This institutional arrangement was criticized for being the main cause of inferior labor market performance and increasing fiscal pressure...

IZA Standpunkt Nr. 39

Die vorliegende Studie zeigt, dass eine ausgebaute Mittags- und Nachmittagsbetreuung mit höherer Erwerbstätigkeit und längeren Arbeitszeiten der Mütter einhergeht. Die ganztägige Betreuung von Schulkindern ist damit ein wichtiger Baustein für die Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf. Schulische und schulergänzende Ganztagsangebote vor allem im Grundschulalter sind erforderlich, um eine durchgängige Betreuung...

IZA Standpunkt Nr. 5
published in: Wirtschaftsdienst, 2009, 89 (5), 322-328 (French version in: Regards sur l'Economie Allemande, 2009, 90, 23-30)

Angesichts der gegenwärtigen Rezession hat die Politik in Deutschland die Leistungen der Kurzarbeit ausgeweitet, indem Zugangsvoraussetzungen vereinfacht und die staatliche Förderung verstärkt wurden. Kurzarbeit ist ein für Arbeitgeber, Arbeitnehmer und die Arbeitslosenversicherung sinnvolles Instrument, um bei vorübergehendem Arbeitsausfall Entlassungen zu vermeiden. Sie hilft Unternehmen, den Verlust von wichtigen Fachkräften durch...

IZA Research Report No. 47
Basierend auf einem Projekt im Auftrag der Bertelsmann Stiftung, Bonn 2012 (78 Seiten)
IZA Research Report No. 37
Expertise für die Geschäftsstelle des Zukunftsrats Familie, Bonn 2011 (71 Seiten)
IZA Research Report No. 36
Gutachten im Auftrag des DIHK, Bonn 2011 (25 Seiten)