The Relation between Child Labour and Mothers' Work: The Case of India
Francesca Francavilla, Gianna Claudia Giannelli
published as 'The Relation between child work and the employment of mothers in India' in: International Journal of Manpower, 2010, 31 (2), 232-257
The paper deals with child labour in developing countries. We address a problem that has recently drawn much attention at the international level, that is, how to invest in womenís rights to advance the rights of both women and children. We study the problem from a new perspective. In our theoretical model we assume that the childís time is an extension of her/his motherís time, and that she has to decide how to allocate it. We estimate two empirical specifications, both multinomial logit. The first one, in line with the standard approach in the literature, estimates a model of the probability of the different childís states, conditional on her/his motherís states. The second empirical specification, in line with our theoretical model, estimates the mother-child states jointly. Using a unique, rich and representative data survey for all Indian states and for urban and rural India (NFHS-2, 1998/9), we select our sample drawing information from the household data set and the womenís data set. Our results show that the presence of the mother in the family increases children welfare, in terms of educational opportunities and protection from work activities. All our results indicate that the mother tends to stay home and send her children to school the better is the fatherís employment position and the wealthier is the family. However, we observe a perverse effect. If the mother works, since female job quality and wage levels are very low, also her children have a higher probability to work.
Text: See Discussion Paper No. 3099